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What are the areas of need?

The SEND Code of Practice states that there are four main areas which cover special educational needs.

These areas and their meanings are as follows:


Children may have difficulties with the skills needed for effective learning such as use of:
• Language, memory and reasoning skills
• Sequencing and organisational skills
• An understanding of number
• Problem-solving and concept development skills
• Fine and gross motor skills
• Independent learning skills
• Exercising choice
• Decision making
• Information processing
•Children may have a specific learning disability such as dyslexia, dyscalculia,
dyspraxia or dysgraphia


Children may have a delay or disorder in one or more of the following areas:

• Attention / Interaction skills

May have difficulties ignoring distractions.Need reminders to keep attention. May need regular prompts to stay on task. May need individualised motivation in order to complete tasks. Difficulty
attending in whole class. Interaction will not always be appropriate. May have peer relationship difficulties. May not be able to initiate or maintain a conversation.

• Understanding / Receptive Language

May need visual support to understand or process spoken language. May need augmented communication systems. Frequent misunderstandings. Repetition of language and some basic language needs to be used to aid their understanding.

• Speech / Expressive Language

May use simplified language and limited vocabulary. Ideas/conversations may be difficult to follow, with the need to request frequent clarification. Some immaturities in the speech sound system. Grammar/ phonological awareness still fairly poor and therefore their literacy can be affected.



Children may have difficulties with social and emotional development which may lead to or stem from:
• Social isolation
• Behaviour difficulties
• Attention difficulties (ADHD)
• Anxiety and depression
• Attachment disorders
• Low self esteem
• Issues with self-image



These pupils may have a medical or genetic condition that could lead to difficulties with:
• Specific medical conditions
• Gross / fine motor skills
• Visual / hearing impairment
• Accessing the curriculum without adaptation
• Physically accessing the building(s) or equipment
• Over sensitivity to noise / smells / light / touch / taste
• Toileting / self-care